New measure of tropical forest vulnerability to help avoid ‘tipping point’

Humid tropical forests, vital in global efforts to limit rising temperatures, are under threat as a result of changes in land use and climate. Now, researchers reporting in the journal One Earth on July 23 have developed a new way to keep tabs on the vulnerability of these forests on a global scale using satellite…

Cascaded metasurfaces for dynamic control of THz wavefronts

Electromagnetic (EM) waves in the terahertz (THz) regime contribute to important applications in communications, security imaging, and bio- and chemical sensing. Such wide applicability has resulted in significant technological progress. However, due to weak interactions between natural materials and THz waves, conventional THz devices are typically bulky and inefficient. Although ultracompact active THz devices do…

Why four-legged animals are better sprinters

Many four-legged mammals can reach considerably higher running speeds than two-legged humans. Animals perfectly adapted to sprinting, such as cheetahs or antelopes, are characterized by a slender body shape, long legs, and a particularly mobile spine to achieve very high speeds when running. An interdisciplinary team including researchers at the University of Cologne’s Institute of…

Reverse optogenetic tool developed

A new optogenetic tool, a protein that can be controlled by light, has been characterized by researchers at Ruhr-Universit√§t Bochum (RUB). They used an opsin — a protein that occurs in the brain and eyes — from zebrafish and introduced it into the brain of mice. Unlike other optogenetic tools, this opsin is not switched…

Bio-based coating for wood outperforms traditional synthetic options

Due to the global efforts to meet sustainability standards, many countries are currently looking to replace concrete with wood in buildings. France, for example, will require that all new public buildings will be made from at least 50 percent wood or other sustainable materials starting in 2022. Because wood is prone to degradation when exposed…

What does a virtual roller coaster ride tell us about migraine?

When experiencing the ups and downs of a virtual roller coaster ride, people who get migraine headaches reported more dizziness and motion sickness than people who do not get migraines, according to a new study published in the July 7, 2021, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Researchers…

Advantages of intranasal vaccination against SARS-CoV-2

There are many reasons that an intranasal vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus would be helpful in the fight against COVID-19 infections, University of Alabama at Birmingham immunologists Fran Lund, Ph.D., and Troy Randall, Ph.D., write in a viewpoint article in the journal Science. That route of vaccination gives two additional layers of protection over intramuscular…

Neuroscientists posit that brain region is a key locus of learning

Small and seemingly specialized, the brain’s locus coeruleus (LC) region has been stereotyped for its outsized export of the arousal-stimulating neuromodulator norepinephrine. In a new paper and with a new grant from the National Institutes of Health, an MIT neuroscience lab is making the case that the LC is not just an alarm button but…

Americans with higher net worth at midlife tend to live longer

One of the keys to a long life may lie in your net worth. In the first wealth and longevity study to incorporate siblings and twin pair data, researchers from Northwestern University analyzed the midlife net worth of adults (mean age 46.7 years) and their mortality rates 24 years later. They discovered those with greater…

Better healthcare management can reduce the risk of delirium among older adults

Elderly patients with neurological conditions are significantly more likely to develop delirium shortly after they are hospitalised. A new study has discovered that a delayed transfer to a hospital floor is associated with greater short-term risk of delirium among patients aged 65 and over, and for those who arrive to the Emergency Department (ED) on…